For years, hardware (wind turbines, EVs, PV etc.) have been put forth as essential tools in addressing global warming. Notwithstanding, software (and more specifically open source software) has increasingly entered the arena to solve climate change, leveraging a computer’s ability to process large amounts of data. Open-source software can be defined as software having the source code freely available for possible modification and redistribution. In that regard, it offers considerable opportunities as 1) a means to gather an impressive amount of knowledge on climate change (data collection facilitator),and 2) the possibility to share it publicly, including software developers who build novel solutions to address the most pressing challenge facing humanity. Let’s delve deeper into how open source is impacting the climate tech industry, and how licenses present opportunities as well as challenges for creators!
The practice of sharing code on platforms such as GitHub has been on the rise. The principle is simple: multiple developers can contribute code with Git, and GitHub then becomes a central repository that is easily accessible and synchronisable for everyone on the platform. GitHub offers the possibility to commit changes, and for other developers to pull them into their own local repository. The advantage of GitHub is that it enables developers to share ideas, and inspire each other.
On GitHub, the ‘climate change’ hashtag accounts for no less than 534 public repositories, which are all codes related to open source software contributing to climate change fighting efforts.
With an amazing array of backers OS-C is establishing itself as an open-source software that boost global capital flows into climate change mitigation. OS-C is a non-profit platform that aggregates the best available data modeling and science worldwide, enabling powerful applications for climate-integrated investing.
In 2015, the ‘POC21 innovation camp’ was a real-life project where participants displayed the power of open source as an alternative to UN climate talks. For participants of the event, open source provides a way to share a project, change it and improve it, by anyone who wants to take part and without any legal restrictions.
Open source projects can easily be assimilated to the epitome of participatory democracy, where policies are substituted by direct action, offering simultaneously a tech solution that helps diminish carbon footprint emissions, but also a symbol of power for citizens who want to shape a green future.
Open source is not just a ‘grass-roots’ solution or used by obscure code aficionados. Big Tech is also slowly starting to take notice by introducing carbon-efficient and carbon-aware applications to reduce emissions. Case in point, Microsoft recently launched its Green SoftwareFoundation, a non-profit organisation, partnering with GitHub, Accenture, and Thoughtworks. The software consultancy wants to reduce emissions incrementally by relying essentially on software. By focusing on the creation of open source and open-data projects, Microsoft (formerly anti-linux, anti-open source) is making a u-turn to make sustainability a priority, and change software development culture for the better.
Moreover, by optimising energy efficiency, open source projects and software could solve the long-lasting problem of ‘polluting data centres’. This follows Microsoft’s decision to launch the Climate Finance Foundation last year in partnership with Allianz, Amazon, as well as S&P Global, to help investment & finance companies better understand the impact they have on climate change.
Academic institutions such as Stanford University also develop FOSS (free and open-source software). This year, Stanford University’s Natural Capital Project made its Urban InVEST data and modeling platform available. The latter provides city planners and developers with information on how to best integrate urban ecosystem services in city design and spatial planning.
Vouching for open source only makes sense insofar these tools are built to retain data, are low cost, facilitate monitoring and the gathering of data. In the private sector, there is a noticeable change in companies' attitudes when it comes to applying an open-source philosophy’. A couple of years ago, Elon Musk announced Tesla’s patents would be open source making the technology readily usable by anyone to spur innovation further.
There are specific problems open source can solve in tackling climate change. For example, saving endangered species that are affected by the effects of climate change. Monitoring is a crucial aspect and projects such as Global Forest Watch are examples where open source platforms are being used ingeniously through the use of satellite imagery and other datasources to help governments and NGOs in their forest preservation efforts around the world.
Tools such as the GIS (Geographic Information System) can facilitate valuable data gathering (weather conditions, agriculture indicators, sea levels, human health risks). Spatial information and geographical conditions paired with high-speed data can even provide real-time data (notably done through APIs). From this information, scientists and industry leaders can make informed decisions and set out strategies to mitigate climate change.
Despite being supported by larger companies, it is often non-profits who lead the charge in the open-source movement, manufacturing cheaper hardware and software than commercial competitors. Depending on the type of open source license, researchers can modify tools in real-time, increasing the speed of projects and driving innovation forward. Why are open source licenses so crucial?
Before we delve into open-source licences, let’s clear any misconceptions right off the bat. Open source licenses are not to be confused with open data licenses. Crucially, open source is related to code, whereas open data refers to data.
One of the main challenges in open source projects is to understand the type of licensing which applies. This is no simple feat. To define it simply, "an open-source license is a type of license usually associated with computer software (but it can apply to other products too) that enables the source code to be used, distributed or modified under the defined terms of the license”. Open source licenses therefore usually indicate what users can and cannot do with the original source code.
Open source can be understood as a compiled source code which operates on data. Licenses usually comply with the open source definition. Licenses ensure a smooth process for granting permission instead of a case-by-case evaluation. In addition, they enable tracking to the original author (Read more about the Open Source definition here).
As a rule of thumb, licenses can be categorised under restrictive and permissive ones. As their names respectively suggest, restrictive licenses do not allow derived work to use any other licenses than the original one, whereas permissive ones enable derived code usage with minimal restrictions.
There are many different types of open source licenses. Here are the main ones:
Besides being one of the most popular out there, it is also one of the most permissive ones. The only requirement is to include original copyright and licence notice for every copy of the software. The ISC license is similar without the clauses made unnecessary by the Berne Convention. This license is used by software such as Node.js, Vuejs, SQLAlchemy, Ruby on Rails, and many more.
Examples of climate projects using MIT license:
Also quite permissive, with a few exceptions. Changes to licensed files must be stated, and original copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices must be kept. Finally, unmodified parts must have the same apache 2.0 license. Endorsing and promotion for your own software is not allowed with the original trademark of this license.
Examples of climate projects using Apache license
BSD licenses are a family of licenses that are more or less restrictive. BSD License 2.0/ Revised BSD licenses allow for unlimited redistribution, as long as the copyright is stated. The FreeBSD License is the second one in the family. The main difference with the 3-clause is the omission of the non-endorsement clause. This license is similar to the ISC license. Finally, the 0-clause is the most permissive licence, and doesn’t even require copyright notice in the source code or binary. However, it is a less popular license for climate projects.
These are copyleft, meaning that they offer you the right to do what you want with the software, but derivative works must be distributed with the original license. They have three main types; Versions 2 and 3 (require a clear track of changes), as well as the lesser Lesser General Public License (LGPL), which is intended for library applicationsApplications using LGPL do not have to be under the same licence.
Examples of climate projects using GPL licenses:
Open-source solutions are playing an increasingly important role in providing scientists, researchers, and developers with a quantifiable basis to tackle climate change.One of the main challenges are the licences attached to open source software.There is however a clear trend in resorting to open source software, and this will undeniably make a positive impact on the fight against climate change.